Wednesday, April 27, 2011

Hindi Grammar 3 (Adjectives)


Hindi adjectives change according to the nouns they modify. As well as nouns, adjectives can be of two types: those that change their ending (type 1) and those that don’t (type 2).


Madhubani style elephant painting

Type 1 adjectives:

The type 1 adjectives would change their endings into –aa when they precede the singular masculine noun and change into “-e” when they precede a plural masculine noun. Type 1 adjectives would have “-ee” as their ending if they modify a singular feminine noun and they would  keep the same ending in the plural, For example:

काला कुत्ता (kaalaa kutta – black dog, dog is masculine singular that ends in “-aa” so the adjective काला will end in “-aa” too)

काले कुत्ते (kaale kutte – black dogs, masculine plural that ends in “-e” so the adjective काले will end in “-e” too)

काली बिल्ली (kaalee billee – black cat, feminine singular that ends in “-ee” and the adjective काली will have its ending as “-ee” too)

काली बिल्लियाँ (kaalee billiyaan – black cats, feminine plural that ends in “-iyaan”, however adjective would be the same as feminine singular).  So the feminine plural adjective is the same as the feminine singular.

In dictionary, you can easily recognize type adjective because they end in “-aa”, for example: बड़ा (badaa – big), मोटा (moTaa – fat), लंबा (lambaa – tall), सस्ता (sastaa – cheap), नीला (neelaa – blue), पुराना (puraanaa – old), नया (nayaa – new), पतला (patlaa – thin).

Type 1 adjective endings:

When agrees with:
singular nouns
plural nouns
Masculine noun
-aa
-e
Feminine noun
-ee
-ee


Examples of Type 1 adjectives:




M. noun sg

M. noun pl.
F. noun sg.
F. noun pl
बड़ा लड़का
barhaa larhkaa
big boy

बड़े लड़के
barhe larhke
big boys
बड़ी लड़की
barhee ladkee
big girl
बड़ी  लड़कियाँ
barhee ladkiyaan
big girls
छोटा बेटा
chhoTaa beta
younger son

छोटे बेटे
chhoTe  beTe
younger sons
छोटी बिल्ली
chhoTee billee
little cat
छोटी बिल्लियाँ
chhoTee billiyaan
little cats
अच्छा सपना
acchhaa sapnaa
good dream

अच्छे सपने
acchhe sapne
good dreams
अच्छी किताब
acchhee kitaab
good book
अच्छी किताबें
acchhee kitaaben
good books
प्यारा बच्चा
pyaaraa bacchaa
cute child

प्यारे बच्चे
pyaare bacche
cute children
प्यारी चिड़िया
pyaaree chirhiyaa
cute bird
प्यारी चिड़ियाँ
pyaaree chirhiyaan
cute birds
नया मकान
nayaa makaan
new house

नए मकान
naye makaan
new houses
नयी साड़ी
nayee sarhee
new sari
नयी साड़ियाँ
nayee saarhiyaan
new saris
पुराना मंदिर
puraanaa mandir
old temple

पुराने मंदिर
puraane mandir
old temples
पुरानी कुर्सी
puraanee kursee
old chair
पुरानी कुर्सियां
puraanee kursiyaan
old chairs
गंदा हाथ
gandaa haath
dirty hand

गंदे हाथ
gande haath
dirty hands
गंदी गली
gandee galee
dirty street
गंदी गलियाँ
gandee galiyaan
dirty streets
काला घोड़ा
kaalaa ghorhaa
black horse

काले घोड़े
kaale ghorhe
black horses
काली आँख
kaalee aankh
black eye
काली आँखें
kaalee aankhen
black eyes
महंगा कपड़ा
mahangaa kapdaa
expensive cloth
महंगे कपड़े
mahange kapde
expensive clothes
महंगी घड़ी
mahangee gharhee
expensive watch
महंगी घड़ियाँ
mahangee gharhiyaan
expensive watches 
सस्ता दुपट्टा
sastaa dupaTTa
cheap scarf
सस्ते दुपट्टे
saste dupaTTe
cheap scarves
सस्ती मेज़
sastee mez
cheap table
सस्ती मेजें
sastee mezen
cheap tables



Type 2 adjectives:

Type 2 adjectives keep their endings and therefore are invariable. In dictionary type 2 adjectives can be recognized as having any endings except “-aa”. The only type 2 adjective that has an ending “-aa” and is invariable is बढ़िया (barhiyaa – great). Usually type two adjectives would end in consonants or any vowel but “-aa”, such as: सुन्दर (sundar – beautiful), खुबसूरत (khubsoorat – beautiful), खुश (khush – happy), साफ़ (saaf – clean), सफ़ेद (safed – white), खाली (khaalee – empty), सुस्त (sust – lazy), पागल (paagal –crazy).

No matter which noun are they used with, their ending stays the same:

खाली जगह (khaalee jagah – empty place, “jagah” is the 2nd type feminine singular noun)
खाली जगहें (khaalee jagahen – empty places, “jagahen” is the 2nd type feminine, plural noun)
खाली कमरा (khaalee kamraa – empty room, “kamraa” is the 1st type masculine, singular noun)
खाली कमरे (khaalee kamre – empty rooms, “kamre” is the 1st type masculine, plural noun)
ख़ूबसूरत आदमी (Khubsoorat aadmee – handsome man, “aadmee” is the 2nd type masculine singular noun)
ख़ूबसूरत आदमी (Khubsoorat aadmee –handosme men, “aadmee” is the 2nd type masculine plural noun)
ख़ूबसूरत औरत (Khubsoorat aurat – beautiful woman, “aurat” is the 2nd type feminine singular noun)
ख़ूबसूरत औरतें (Khubsoorat auraten – beautiful women, “auraten” is the 2nd type feminine plural noun)

Type 2 adjective endings: 

When agrees with:
Singular
Plural
Masculine noun
Other than “-aa” endings
Don’t change
Feminine noun
Other than “-aa” endings
Don’t change


Examples of type 2 adjectives:




M. noun sg.

M. noun pl.
F. noun sg.
F. noun pl.
सुन्दर लड़का
sundar larhkaa
beautiful boy

सुन्दर लड़के
sundar larhke
beautiful boys
सुन्दर लड़की
sundar larhkee
beautiful girl
सुन्दर लड़कियाँ 
sundar larhkiyan
beautiful girls
खाली पर्स
khaalee pars
empty purse

खाली पर्स
khaalee pars
empty purses
खाली जगह
khaalee jagaah
empty place
खाली जगहें
khaalee jagahen
ampty places
हवादार घर
havaadaar ghar
airy house

हवादार घर
havaadaar ghar
airy houses
हवादार रसोई
havaadaar rasoee
airy kitchen
हवादार रसोइयाँ
havadaar rasoiyaan
airy kitchens
होशियार आदमी
hoshiyaar aadmee
clever man

होशियार आदमी
hoshiyaar aadmee
clever men
होशियार औरत
hoshiyaar aurat
clever woman
होशियार औरतें
hoshiyaar auraten
clever women
अमीर परदेशी
ameer pardeshee
rich foreigner

अमीर परदेशी
ameer pardeshee
rich foreigners
अमीर महिला
ameer mahilaa
rich woman
अमीर महिलाएं 
ameermahilaaen
rich women
गरीब मजदूर
gareeb majdoor
poor worker

गरीब मजदूर
gareeb majdoor
poor workers
गरीब नौकरानी
gareeb naukraanee
poor maid
गरीब नौकरानियाँ 
gareeb naukraaniyan
poor maids
अद्भुत नाटक
adbhut naaTak
amazing play

अद्भुत नाटक
adbhut naaTak
amazing plays
अद्भुत कहानी
adbhut kahaanee
amazing story
अद्भुत कहानीyan
adbhut kahaniyaan
amazing stories
साफ़ कमरा
saaf kamraa
clean room

साफ़ कमरें
saaf kamren
clean rooms
साफ़ अलमारी
saaf almaaree
clean wardrobe
साफ़ अलमारियाँ
saaf almaariyaan
clean wardrobes
लाल जूता
laal jootaa
red shoe
लाल  जूते
laal joote
red shoes
लाल साड़ी
laal sarhee
red sari
लाल साड़ियाँ
laal saarhiyaan
red saris

EXCEPTION:  बढ़िया (barhiya - excellent) is an adjective that ends with "-aa" but never changes its ending:

बढ़िया खाना    barhiya khaanaa    excellent food
बढ़िया फिल्म    barhiya film    excellent film

Please read this short hotel description. It illustrates the usage of adjectives.







*ताज होटल*

ताज होटल बहुत अच्छा और प्रसिद्ध है। कमरे काफ़ी हवादार और साफ़ हैं।
सारी दीवारें बिलकुल सफ़ेद हैं।
कमरे में एक बढ़ा पलंग हैएक लकड़ी की कुर्सीएक नया दूरदर्शनएक काला फ़ोनएक छोटा मेज़ और एक अच्छा- सा बाथरूम है।
पंखा और ए.सी. भी हैं।
ताज होटल में बहुत विभिन्न रेस्टोरेंट हैं: हिन्दुस्तानीचीनी और यूरोपीय।
खाना बहुत स्वादिष्ट और काफी सस्ता है।

Taj HoTal
Taj hoTal bahut achchhaa aur prasiddh hai. Kamre kaafee havaadaar aur saaf hain.
Saare deevaaren bilkul safed hain.
Kamre mein ek barhaa palang hai, ek lakrhee kee kursee, ek nayaa doordarshan, ek kaalaa fon, ek chhoTaa mez aur ek achchhaa-sa bathroom hai.
Pankhaa aur esee bhee hain.
Taj hoTal mein bahut vibhinn restorenT hain: hindustaanee, cheenee aur yuuropeey.
Khaanaa bahut svaadiSht aur kaafee sastaa hai.

Taj Hotel

Taj hotel is very good and famous. The rooms are quite airy and clean.
All the walls are completely white.
In a room there is a big bed, a wooden chair, a new TV, a black phone, a small table and a good bathroom.
fan and an A.C. are also there.
In Taj hotel, there are many various restaurants: Indian, Chinese and European.
The food is very tasty and quite cheap.
Text’s vocabulary:

ताज
taaj
crown
होटल
hoTal
hotel
बहुत
bahut
very
अच्छा
achchhaa
good
और
aur
and
प्रसिद्ध
prasiddh
famous
है
hai
is
काफी
kaafee
quite; enough
हवादार
havaadaar
airy
साफ़
saaf
clean
हैं
hain
are
सारे
saare
all
दीवारें
deevaaren
walls
बिलकुल
bilkul
completely
सफ़ेद
safed
white
में
men
in
एक
ek
a; an; one
बढ़ा
barhaa
big
पलंग
palang
bed
लकड़ी की
lakrhee kaa
wooden; of wood
कुर्सी
kursee
chair
नया
nayaa
new
दूरदर्शन
doordarshan
TV
काला
kaalaa
black
फ़ोन
fon
phone
छोटा
choTaa
small
मेज़
mez
table
अच्छा- सा
achchhaa-saa
goodish
बाथरूम
baathroom
toilet; bathroom
पंखा
pankhaa
fan
ए.सी.
esee
A.C.
भी
bhee
also; too
विभिन्न
vibhinn
various
रेस्टोरेंट
restorenT
restaurant
हिन्दुस्तानी
hindustaanee
Indian
यूरोपीय
yooropeey
European
खाना
khaanaa
food
स्वादिष्ट
svaadiShT
tasty
सस्ता
sastaa
cheap

5 comments:

symmaque said...

what is the difference between :
औरत and महिला
भारतवासी and हिन्दुस्तानी

CrazyLassi said...

symmaque@ औरत is woman and महिला is lady.

Although भारतवासी and हिन्दुस्तानी mean exactly the same thing ("Indian"), भारतवासी is derived from भारत (Bharat/India) and हिन्दुस्तानी - from हिन्दुस्तान (Hindustan/India).

You will find lots of words in Hindi that mean the same thing but are used in different contexts, such as दुनिया, संसार, विश्व - all mean "world" etc.

Rita said...

Hi, Your posts have been very useful for a non-Hindi speaker like me. Its been very informative esp. the grammar part and I am using it to teach my son.

C Lai said...

Thank you for your Hindi Lessons. I found it while searching on the net, and it is excellent. I have been coming back to your blog repeatedly to learn more. I find all your lessons, esp the ones on Verbs, very useful. I am planning a trip to India in March 2012. Dhanyavaad!!

suresh kumar said...

Greetings.

Very good site. Great contributions. Keep it up. I am Suresh. I teach Hindi on line. Do see my Hindi lessons in www.Ispeakhindi.com.

Thank you.

Suresh
sskay56@gmail.com

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