Tuesday, August 16, 2011

Hindi Grammar 7 (Possessive Pronouns)

How to use possessive pronouns in Hindi

Hindi possessive pronouns change their endings depending on the number and gender of the noun that they go with.  For example, if I want to say “my son” I would say मेरा बेटा (meraa beTaa - m, sg), “my daughter” would be मेरी बेटी (meree beTee - f,sg ), “my clothes” would be मेरे कपड़े (mere kapDe - m,pl), “my (girl) friends” would be मेरी सहेलियां (meree saheliyaan - f,pl), however if we want to say “my father”, we would use plural masculine form to show respect and say मेरे पिताजी (mere pitaajee – m,sg, polite).  In Hindi there is no difference who is saying मेरी बेटी (mere beTee – my daughter) – a woman or a man, the pronoun मेरी will depend on the noun that it precedes. It will change accordingly the number (singular or plural) and the gender (masculine or feminine).

A fragment on the temple's door

Hindi noun genders have to be memorized because there are too many irregular nouns that don’t follow the rough rule that divides Hindi nouns into two groups: the ones that end in “-aa” (masculine) and the ones that end in “-ee” (feminine).  The best way to learn the genders of Hindi nouns is to listen to Hindi language and read Hindi books and articles, also converse with Indian people until you know what Hindi sounds like. At that stage, you will naturally know the ending of possessive pronoun as you will be familiar with the sound of the right Hindi.

Lord Shiva

Here is the table of Hindi possessive pronouns:


                                       


Pronouns that are used before singular masculine nouns
Pronouns that are used before singular feminine nouns
Pronouns that are used before plural masculine nouns
Pronouns that are used before plural feminine nouns

मेरा
meraa
my, mine

 मेरी
meree
my, mine

मेरे
mere
my, mine

 मेरी
meree
my, mine

तेरा
teraa
your, yours

 तेरी
teree
your, yours

तेरे
tere
your, yours

 तेरी
teree
your, yours

तुम्हारा
tumhaaraa
your, yours

 तुम्हारी
tumhaaree
your, yours

तुम्हारे
tumhaare
your, yours

 तुम्हारी
tumhaaree
your, yours

आपका
aapkaa
your,yours

 आपकी
aapkee
your, yours

आपके
aapke
your, yours

 आपकी 
aapkee
your, yours

इसका/उसका
iskaa/uskaa
his,hers
 इसकी/ उसकी
iskee/uskee
his, hers
इसके/उसके
iske/uske
his,hers
 इसकी/ उसकी
iskee/uskee
his, hers
हमारा
hamaaraa
our, ours

 हमारी
hamaaree
our, ours

हमारे
hamaare
our, ours

 हमारी
hamaaree
our, ours

तुम्हारा
tumhaaraa
your,yours

 तुम्हारी
tumhaaree
your, yours

तुम्हारे
tumhaare
your, yours

 तुम्हारी
tumhaaree
your, yours

आपका
aapkaa
your, yours

 आपकी
aapkee
your, yours

आपके
aapke
your, yours

 आपकी
aapkee
your, yours

इनका/उनका
inkaa/unkee
their, theirs
 इनकी/उनकी
inkee/unkee
their, theirs
इनके/उनके
inke/unke
their, theirs
 इनकी/उनकी
inkee/unkee
their, theirs


Examples with nouns:


                                          

मेरी माँ
meree maan
my mother - f,sg
मेरे पिता
mere pitaa
my father - m,sg, polite
मेरी बहिन
meree bahin
my sister - f, sg
मेरा भाई
meraa bhaaee
my brother - m,sg
मेरी बेटी 
meree beTee
my daughter  - f,sg
मेरा बेटा
meraa beTaa
my son - m, sg
तेरा कुत्ता
teraa kuttaa
your dog - m,sg
तेरी बिल्ली
teree billee
your cat - f,sg
हमारे राजा
hamaare raajaa
our king - m,sg, polite
हमारी रानी
hamaaree raanee
our queen - f,sg
इसके बच्चे
iske bacche
her children - m,pl
उनकी सहेलियां
unkee saheliyaan
their (girl) friends - f, pl

Marigolds and candles at the temple


How to use possessive pronouns with adjectives and nouns:

Hindi adjectives would change their endings according to the gender and number of the noun. If the noun is a masculine gender, the adjective will also have to be a masculine gender. For example:

गोरी लड़की
goree ladkee
fair girl (lightskinned)

 गोरी लड़कियां
goree ladkiyaan
fair girls

गोरा लड़का
goraa ladkaa
fair boy
 गोरे लड़के
gore ladke
fair boys

More examples:

एक अच्छा वक़ील
ek achchhaa vaqeel
a good lawyer (m, sg)
दो पतले मज़दूर
do patle mazdoor
two thin workers (m, pl)
इसकी प्यारी हाँसी
iskee pyaaree haansee
her beautiful laugh (f, sg)
एक छोटा बच्चा
ek chhoTaa bachchaa
a small child (m, sg)
हमारी बड़ी रसोई
hamaaree badee rasoee
our big kitchen (f, sg)
एक अंधा भिखारी 
ek andhaa bhikhaaree
a blind beggar (m,sg)
मेरी नयी किताब
meree nayee kitaab
my new book (f, sg)
दस काली बिल्लियाँ
das kaalee billiyaan
ten black cats (f, pl)

5 comments:

satyakumar said...

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CrazyLassi said...

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Prasad Battu said...

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Julia Robert said...

English Pronouns is very important because its structure is used in every day conversation. The more you practice the subject, the closer you get to mastering the English language.

Subject and Object Pronouns

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